Melchior (Romans t. 3) (French Edition)
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It may be interesting to the reader to observe unequivocal evidences of this, as furnished in the following encomiums pronounced upon Calvin by two eminent writers of sound and unbiassed judgment: —.
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His bringing up was in the study of the civil law. Divine knowledge he gathered, not by hearing and reading, so much as by teaching others. For, though thousands were debtors to him as touching knowledge in that kind, yet he to none but only to God, the Author of that most blessed fountain, the Book of Life, and of the admirable dexterity of wit, together with the helps of other learning, which were his guide.
He wrote in Latin as well as is possible in a dead language, and in French with a purity that was extraordinary for his time. This purity, which is to the present day admired by our critics, renders his writings greatly superior to almost all of the same age; as the works of MM.
Under the tuition of Wolmar, he appears to have applied himself to the study of the Greek language with the greatest diligence and ardour. Farther, his house was frequented by men that were learned and fearers of God, among whom must be numbered John Calvin, who had no hesitation in placing himself under Wolmar, to learn from him the Greek language, he having opened a school expressly for certain young men of good family and of great hope, in which he succeeded so admirably, that there could not have been found a man better qualified for the successful training of youth, and there was no one who had educated in a proper manner so large a number as he had done.
Having retired, with his wife, named Margaret, to Isne, a town belonging to that lady, he was attacked with paralysis, and at the end of some months, he and his wife overcome as she was with grief died on the same day — it being the will of God, that those whom a sacred friendship had held bound during the space of twenty-seven years complete, should be inclosed in the same tomb. He died at Isne in the year , at the age of 64 years.
Et ton disciple parle et demeure debout? In that list the Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans is placed first in order, and is stated to have been published in It will be observed, however, that while the Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans is supposed to have been published in , the first dedication to the Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians, and the dedication to the Commentary on the Second Epistle, both of them bear date This is my comfort in my affliction, for thy word hath quickened me:. Hence, if we meditate carefully on his word, we shall live even in the midst of death, nor will we meet with any sorrow so heavy for which it will not furnish us with a remedy.
And if we are bereft of consolation and succour in our adversities, the blame must rest with ourselves; because, despising or overlooking the word of God, we purposely deceive ourselves with vain consolation. Immo oculis captus quinam credatur Homerus, Quem sequitur vaturn caetera turba ducem?
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Illius sed enim splendorem longa vetustas Obruerat densis, heu, nimium tenebris. Tu Melior, donec fato meliora renato Dux ipsi fieres, Volmare magne, duci. Ergo placet nostros iterum vulgare furores? Ergo semel non est desipuisse satis? Beza's father had two brothers; Nicholas, who was member of Parliament at Paris; and Claude, who was abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Froimont in the diocese of Beauvais. He was received into Wolmar's house, and the day on which this took place was afterward celebrated as a second birthday.
At the time, Bourges was the focus of the Reformation movement in France. In , after Francis I issued his edict against ecclesiastical innovations, Wolmar returned to Germany. The pursuit of law had little attraction for him; he enjoyed more the reading of the ancient classics, especially Ovid , Catullus , and Tibullus. He received the degree of licentiate in law August 11, , and, as his father desired, went to Paris, where he began to practice. To support him, his relatives had obtained for him two benefices, the proceeds of which amounted to golden crowns a year; and his uncle had promised to make him his successor.
Beza spent two years in Paris and gained a prominent position in literary circles. To escape the many temptations to which he was exposed, with the knowledge of two friends, he became engaged in the year to a young girl of humble descent, Claudine Denoese, promising to publicly marry her as soon as his circumstances would allow it.
In he published a collection of Latin poetry , Juvenilia , which made him famous, and he was widely considered one of the best writers of Latin poetry of his time. Some cautioned against reading biographical details in his writings. Philip Schaff argued that it was a mistake to "read between his lines what he never intended to put there" or to imagine "offences of which he was not guilty even in thought. Shortly after the publication of his book, he fell ill and his illness, it is reported, revealed to him his spiritual needs.
Gradually he came to accept salvation in Christ, which lifted his spirits. He then resolved to sever his connections of the time, and went to Geneva , the French city of refuge for Evangelicals adherents of the Reformation movement , where he arrived with Claudine on October 23, He was received by John Calvin , who had met him already in Wolmar's house, and was married in the church. On his way home, he visited Pierre Viret at Lausanne, who brought about his appointment as professor of Greek at the academy there in November Beza found time to write a Biblical drama, Abraham Sacrifiant ,  in which he contrasted Catholicism with Protestantism , and the work was well received.
The text of some verses includes directions for musical performance, but no music survives. Thirty-four of his translations were published in the edition of the Genevan Psalter , and six more were added to later editions. About the same time he published Passavantius,  a satire directed against Pierre Lizet , the former president of the Parliament of Paris , and principal originator of the "fiery chamber" chambre ardente , who, at the time , was abbot of St.
Victor near Paris and publishing a number of polemical writings.
Of a more serious character were two controversies in which Beza was involved at this time. The first concerned the doctrine of predestination and the controversy of Calvin with Jerome Hermes Bolsec. The second referred to the burning of Michael Servetus at Geneva on October 27, In defense of Calvin and the Genevan magistrates, Beza published, in , the work De haereticis a civili magistratu puniendis translated into French in In , Beza took a special interest in the Waldensians of Piedmont , Italy , who were being harassed by the French government.
The written declaration clearly stated their position and was well received by the Lutheran theologians, but was strongly disapproved of in Bern and Zurich. In the autumn of , Beza undertook a second journey with Farel to Worms by way of Strasburg in the hopes of bringing about an intercession by the Evangelical princes of the empire in favor of the persecuted brethren at Paris.
With Melanchthon and other theologians then assembled at the Colloquy of Worms , Beza proposed a union of all Protestant Christians, but the proposal was decidedly denied by Zurich and Bern. False reports reached the German princes that the hostilities against the Huguenots in France had ceased and no embassy was sent to the court of France. As a result, Beza undertook another journey with Farel, Johannes Buddaeus , and Gaspard Carmel to Strasburg and Frankfurt, where the sending of an embassy to Paris was resolved upon. Upon his return to Lausanne, Beza was greatly disturbed.
In union with many ministers and professors in city and country, Viret at last thought of establishing a consistory and of introducing a church discipline which should apply excommunication especially at the celebration of the communion. But the Bernese, then in control of Lausanne, would have no Calvinistic church government. This caused many difficulties, and Beza thought it best in , to settle at Geneva. Here he was given chair of Greek in the newly established academy,  and after Calvin's death also that of theology. He was also obliged to preach. He completed the revision of Pierre Olivetan 's translation of the New Testament , begun some years before.
In , he undertook another journey in the interest of the Huguenots, this time to Heidelberg. More important than this polemical activity was Beza's statement of his own confession. It was originally prepared for his father in justification of his actions and published in revised form to promote Evangelical knowledge among Beza's countrymen. It was printed in Latin in with a dedication to Wolmar.
An English translation was published at London , , and Translations into German, Dutch, and Italian were also issued. In the mean time, things took such shape in France that the happiest future for Protestantism seemed possible.
King Anthony of Navarre , yielding to the urgent requests of Evangelical noblemen, declared his willingness to listen to a prominent teacher of the Church. Beza, a French nobleman [ citation needed ] and head of the academy in the metropolis of French Protestantism, [ citation needed ] was invited to Castle Nerac, but he could not plant the seed of Evangelical faith in the heart of the king. In the following year, , Beza represented the Evangelicals at the Colloquy of Poissy , and in an eloquent manner defended the principles of the Evangelical faith.
The queen insisted upon another colloquy, which was opened at St. Germain Jan.
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What texts these booksellers sold, who bought and read them, in which settings, and, more importantly, what readers took from them, however, remains largely a mystery. He was then invited by students into the University to give private exhortations A seventeenth-century historian related that Calvin gave similar lessons circa in the convent of the Augustinians Nicolas Colladon and Theodore Beza report in their lives of Calvin that the future reformer also gave private sermons at a nearby village in the home of the local seigneur The Colladon were in a position to know Taken together these examples suggest that public preaching often inspired auditors to explore evangelical ideas further in private and, furthermore, that the resulting conventicles drew together people from the country and city, as well as from across the social spectrum, including nobles, townsmen, academics, and friars.
So too, prior to organizing the Reformed church at Bourges in , Simon Brossier visited several times to exhort the faithful Besides these two, no other underground Protestant ministers seem to have operated at Bourges before , nor is anything more known about what went on in those meetings. Very few seem to have joined. A newly recovered list of some Huguenots who abjured their faith at Bourges in the bloody wake of the St. Of the who abjured in the two weeks following the Massacre, 72 of the with their length of apostasy recorded claimed to have joined the Reformed church ten to twelve years previously, that is, circa to The balance, 67 or forty-five percent, became Huguenots after The important implication of this list - if a valid sample of church membership over time - is that just as most Reformed churches across France were founded after , so too most dissenters at Bourges only came to identify themselves as Protestants and join the Reformed church after the death of Henry II.
A Reformed church was there! Since very few Huguenots have left written accounts of their conversion, the journal of Jean Glaumeau, a priest who composed a guarded digest of events at Bourges from the era of Luther through the tumult of , including his decision to join the Reformed church in January of that year, deserves special attention.
His mother came under suspicion for heresy in In , he sent his eldest illegitimate son to live with his brother in Geneva These overt displays by the Reformed minority enacted their identity. As had Psalm singing by confreres in Paris and Lyon such manifestations at Bourges led to violent confrontations between the Reformed and their Catholic neighbors in and These battles, one surmises, may have signaled to the wavering majority of evangelicals that the kingdom of God was at hand and it was time to enter.
Insofar as the fragmentary evidence permits us to tell, it appears not to have been. In the first place, the remarkably large number of heterodox clerics active in Bourges was no anomaly. Evidence from judicial records suggests a great many evangelical friars and priests were active throughout France and likely played a similar role in the formation of the hundreds of local groups out of which the Reformed churches would grow.
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Yet hundreds more were tried. For the same period Raymond Mentzer counts clerics of all types who stood trial for heterodoxy at the Parlement of Toulouse Smaller samples yield correspondingly substantial numbers. At Rouen by the early date of officials had already condemned 7 men in orders for heresy At Bordeaux over the period to the Parlement indicted 25 clerics for holding evangelical doctrines From to in Paris the Chambre ardente tried 68 heresy cases involving priests or religious clergy, far more than the 12 cases concerning secret conventicles or private heretical preaching As for the mendicant orders in particular, Robert Sauzet and a team of collaborators identified an admittedly incomplete list of friars who converted by , yet one observes that many, perhaps most of them, never stood trial for heresy How many evangelical clerics escaped indictment remains unknown.
The evidence from the parlements - consider the tried for heresy at Toulouse alone - suggests the total number of unorthodox priests, monks, and mendicants operating across France from to reached well into the thousands. Similarly, at Bordeaux from to , the Parlement put the Carmelites, Franciscans, and Augustinians under increasing scrutiny for their heretical preaching, leading to several trials and imprisonments In an inquisitor denounced six more Augustinians for preaching heresy at Angers and accused the Bishop of protecting them, noting that two of the friars had been allowed to flee to Geneva The most famous case, of course, is the reform at Meaux.
La Réforme en France et en Italie
Through these efforts, active lay circles formed including town notables and commoners By , when the Meaux reformers were silenced, these groups evidently had become trained well enough to perpetuate this system of religious education on their own. From then until well after they formed the first, albeit short-lived, underground Reformed church in the mids, Meaux produced a steady trickle of lay missionaries, who evangelized other towns and regions Among this group were several of those responsible for the October placards.
The presence of so large a block of heterodox clergy would seem to have been important in eroding support for the traditional church down to a third of the population by the time the town fell to Huguenot troops in Some evidence exists of a link between preaching and conventicle formation there too. During Advent of and Lent of a priest from Picardy gave well attended sermons and private lessons on St. Many were unaware that despite appearances - the priest was also selling indulgences - he was, according to the Parlement of Toulouse, inculcating Lutheran doctrines.